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A Simpler Cosmology Model
15 August 2019 Version
Robert M. Hartranft Scott W. Hartranft
Simsbury CT 06070 Aloha OR 97006
Email firstname.lastname@example.org Website hartranft.org
This paper describes a model where –
· Once created, the Laws of Physics have been invariant – no Cosmic Inflation, no Dark Energy, no faster-than-light travel, not even a wormhole.
· Half the material in the universe has negative mass-energy ["unmatter"], which gravitationally repels ordinary matter.
· Repeated multiplication, not a Big Bang, created all the material in the universe.
· Our universe stands alone – it does not interact with any other universes or levels. Everything here was created here.
We think this model is better-behaved, more understandable, and more predictable than currently popular models.
The Material Creation Process conserved the zero net mass-energy of empty void by simultaneously creating:
· Half positive mass – Matter and Anti-Matter
· Half negative mass – Unmatter and Anti-Unmatter
The Force of Gravity is ….... (g/r2) • m1 • m2 = (F) So:
· Matter attracts Matter ……….... (+) • (+) = (+) and
· Unmatter attracts Unmatter ..... (-) • (-) = (+) BUT
· Matter repels Unmatter ............ (+) • (-) = (-)
Therefore zero net gravity by the universe as a whole.
Material creation by repeated multiplication –
Immediately after the creation of the Laws, the net mass-energy, net charge, and all the other net values of the universe were all zero. They are still net zero today, and will remain net zero as long as the Laws remain unchanged. Two HunH pairs then formed, each being an atom of hydrogen very weakly bound to an unatom of unhydrogen - one pair with a positive spin proton and a positive spin unproton, the other pair with a negative spin proton and a negative spin unproton. See Figure 7.
Such pairs would be immediately torn apart by external gravity or by energetic collisions, but in this model, neither of those were present at first. The exact balance of positive and negative mass, combined with near-perfect initial mixing, meant no external gravity and nothing to cause energetic collisions.
The pairs therefore remained in the same area where they first appeared. We think the unusual fields around a HunH pair caused another HunH pair to form immediately adjacent to each original HunH pair, with new HunH pairs rotated 180º.
All this doubled the number of HunH pairs, but left all the net zero totals unchanged. Multiplication continued until the universe was an immense sphere of HunH pairs. A region of HunH pair separation then appeared, and propagated at nearly lightspeed as gravity and increasingly energetic collisions pulled apart the HunH pairs. As the HunH pairs recombined into H2 molecules and unH2 unmolecules, they emitted the photons whose cooled, faded remnants are the cosmic microwave background radiation.
That ended the era of material creation, and ±mass began segregating into the distinct regions now present.
Multiplication generations calculation
The visible universe has about 1080 particles. If initially proton-sized [10-45 m3], they would have fit in a sphere –
[4/3] π R3 = 1080 10-45 = 1035 m3
R = 2.85•1011 meter radius sphere
At lightspeed – 3•108 m/s – this distance takes –
= 16 minutes [Note: universe is now ≈14•109 years old]
The postulated Big Bang was initially hyper-dense, and needed its own Laws. But instead, we think just two hydrogen-unhydrogen pairs [HunH pairs] began the universe. Each pair then created two more pairs, but also continued on itself; so net 2x pairs.
1080 = 2n n = 266
Multiply for 266 generations at typical densities, and segregate the ±mass to get what exists now.
Origin of the model
The model is based on broadly accepted physics, with strong application of symmetry principles. It is not based on any specific prior work.
Cosmology model notes
· Once created, the Laws have been invariant – unchanged. They are the same everywhere and always as here and now.
· Half the electrical charges in the universe are Negative Charges. Half the magnetic poles are South Poles. Half the rotations are Counter-Clockwise. All are net zero for the universe overall. Likewise, we think half the material in the universe has Negative Mass (“unmatter”). There was no prior or external mass source, just as energizing an electromagnet creates a N/S magnetic pair despite there being no prior pairs.
· That allowed creation by repeated multiplication of HunH pairs of a huge, approximately nuclear-density sphere.
· However done, matter repelled unmatter.
§ That allowed the initial expansion. And,
§ Segregated the unmatter into apparent “voids”. And now,
§ Allows both normal starlight and supernovas to accelerate expansion by pushing the universe apart. The measured local expansion speed increases with distance from Earth since that means more stars pushing.
· All this is quantum mechanical, so no singularities.
If correct …
About the authors
Both are graduates of the Cornell University College of Engineering: Robert in Engineering Physics in 1966, and Scott in Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2001. Robert is Scott’s father. This work was made possible by the tireless support of Dr. Martha Hartranft (Robert’s wife, Scott’s mother).
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