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1 May 2020 Version

Robert M. Hartranft              Scott W. Hartranft              

Simsbury CT 06070             Aloha OR 97006

Email           Website

Do you believe there are both [-] charges and [+] charges?


Then you may not be surprised to learn that the [-] charges exactly balance the [+] charges, so the net charge of the universe overall is zero.

 Nature does seem to like symmetry.

How about South poles exactly balancing North poles?

 No problem.

Counter-clockwise rotation balancing clockwise?

 Sure again.  This model is easy.

Well … the factory that makes [-] charges, South poles, and Counter-clockwise rotation also makes negative mass-energy [unmatter].  Matter gravitationally attracts matter; and unmatter attracts unmatter; but unmatter repels matter.

And once created, the Laws of Physics have been unchanged and identical, always and everywhere – no Big Bang; no Cosmic Inflation; no Dark Energy; no faster-than-light travel; no singularities, even in black holes; not even a short wormhole.  

The model just got hard. 

What created all the material in the universe – me, for example?  And why didn’t Conservation of Mass-Energy prevent creating me?

In this model, conservation includes the negative mass of unmatter, so your [+75] kilograms of matter are balanced by [-75] unkilograms of unmatter.


Newton and unmatter

Newton considered only positive mass material, but his formula for the gravitational force also works for unmatter – see below.


A Gender Perspective

Most religions envision the Creator or chief god as male –  

Ancient Greece – Zeus

Ancient Rome – Jupiter

Christianity – Father, Son, and Holy Ghost

Islam – Allah

Hinduism – Brahma  

Buddhism – Buddha was the most important prophet

We think His first and most important creations were the Laws of Physics, which Mother Nature seems to ‘love, honor, and obey’, as in the classic wedding vow.

Most physicists are male and clever.  Mother Nature is female and elegant.

And there is something profoundly female about quantum mechanics, where for example, two seemingly identical radioactive nuclei can decay at different times for reasons known only to the nuclei.

Both authors are male and more clever than elegant.  Those deficiencies noted, we offer some observations.

Females are much more law-abiding than males on major crimes.  For example, there are over 100 male murderers for each female murderer. 

The usual Big Bang version, after ‘murdering’ Conservation of Mass-Energy, the Law of Gravity, and the lightspeed limit, then postulates an undescribed thing called Dark Energy to explain the accelerating expansion of the universe.

This is the intellectual equivalent of planning to rob Fort Knox   alone using only a BB gun, then bragging how rich you will be. 

In this model, the acceleration is caused by the pressure of starlight and supernovas in a universe with zero net gravity. The measured rate increases with distance from Earth because that means more stars pushing – no BB gun required.

Females never want to look ugly.  Males routinely decide that looking ugly will intimidate opponents, and so they apply war-paint or wear battle uniforms which are good camouflage but not handsome.

The standard Big Bang model is very ugly – far beyond the physics warts above.  That begins with the entire universe somehow compressed into a sphere smaller than an atom, without even a hint on what produced that literally incredible object.  Nearly magical Dark Energy is just one book in this strange library.

I see you are not a fan of the Big Bang model.  But virtually every other physicist loves it.

True – but physicists are just Clever Party poll watchers.  The only voter is Mother Nature, who always votes straight Elegant Party.

We think this is the winning ticket –

    1.  Initially just endless, lawless void.

    2.  The Laws of Physics were created, but all the net values remained zero – which they still are and always will be.

    3.  Two particle groups then appeared, which we will call Adam and Eve

    4.  The Adam group had a –

    spin-down proton,

    spin-down unproton,

    spin-up electron, and 

    spin-up unelectron.

    5.  The Eve group had a –

    spin-up proton,

    spin-up unproton, 

    spin-down electron, and

    spin-down unelectron.

    6.  So the Adam group and the Eve group both had all net values zero, and both were weakly bound HunH pairs.

    7.  They then self-replicated for about 266 generations, each generation doubling the particle group count, yielding about 1080 particle groups in a sphere of radius about 16 light-minutes, but all nets still zero.

    8.  A region of particle group separation then randomly appeared, and propagated at nearly lightspeed as gravity and increasingly energetic collisions tore apart the particle groups.

    9.  The repulsion and attraction forces times distance caused heating as ±mass material segregated.  

    10.                    As some particle parts combined into H2 molecules and unH2 unmolecules, the H2 emitted the photons whose cooled, faded remnants are the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation present now.  Many of these photons were cancelled by unphotons from the unH2. The segregation caused the observed slight spatial non-uniformity.

    11.                    Since material density was high and there was no spin, an immense number of very large, short-lived stars then formed.  When they reached end-of-life and went supernova, they produced an equally immense number of black holes.

    12.                    These attracted one another, but because of the separation of ±mass, most of them experienced unbalanced forces, causing them to move away from boundaries and to spin.

    13.                    So most of the material captured by very large black holes – gas, dust, stars, and black holes – went into orbit around the central black hole, as seen now in the visible material in the universe being mostly in spiral galaxies having super-massive central black holes.

    Now in graphics 


    Figure 1,Figure 1,Figure 1 

    The Material Creation Process conserved the zero net mass-energy of empty void by simultaneously creating:                         

    ·      Half positive mass – Matter and Anti-Matter

    ·      Half negative mass –  unmatter and anti-unmatter

    The Force of Gravity is .. (g/r2) x (m1) x  (m2) = (F)    So:

    ·      Matter attracts Matter ………... (+)   x    (+) = (+)    and

    ·      Unmatter attracts unmatter ..... (-)   x            (-)                = (+)    BUT 

    ·      Matter repels unmatter ............                 (+)           x      (-)               = (-)

    Therefore zero net gravity by the universe as a whole.


    Origin of the model

    The model is based on broadly accepted physics, with strong application of symmetry principles.  It is not based on any specific prior work.

           You are now a cosmology expert, at least on this model.

    About the authors 

    Both are graduates of the Cornell University College of Engineering:  Robert in Engineering Physics in 1966, and Scott in Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2001.  Robert is Scott’s father. This work was made possible by the tireless support of    Dr. Martha Hartranft (Robert’s wife, Scott’s mother).

    References – Later