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28 February 2019
Dear Reader –
I believe the following paper is worth reading, but it is heavy going even if you like Physics. I did a better job on the Figures than on the text.
I therefore recommend reading it in Playboy mode:
Look at the Figures first.
Study the Figures.
Read some of the text.
Study the Figures more.
Miss Universe and Miss Gravity await.
A Brief Cosmology and a Qualitative Gravity Model
28 February 2019 Version
Robert M. Hartranft Scott W. Hartranft
Simsbury CT 06070 Aloha OR 97006
Cosmology – summary of our previous work
In earlier papers, the authors asserted that –
· The true Creation Event was the creation of the Laws of Physics. The Big Bang was simply an event allowed by the Laws.
· Half the material in the universe has negative mass (which we call “unmatter”), with zero net mass for the universe overall, just as the universe overall has zero net electrical charge, zero net magnetic polarity, and zero net rotation. This holds everywhere and always, including before, during, and after the Big Bang.
· Positive mass gravitationally attracts positive mass. Negative mass gravitationally attracts negative mass. But positive mass repels negative mass, just as predicted by Newton’s law of gravity, F = g (±m1) (±m2) / r2
· Virtually all the matter and unmatter has segregated into many separate regions of the universe. The unmatter regions appear “void” because the unphotons from ungalaxies are not detected by human eyes nor by conventional sensors.
· This model allows at least two alternatives to the Big Bang – which we call the Big Extrusion model and the Big Soup model. Both avoid the hyper-dense conditions theorized in the early Big Bang by recognizing that gravitational repulsion between matter and unmatter allows expansion from more normal structures.
· In Big Extrusion, material appears in a continuous stream over an extended time period rather than everything instantaneously at a single point.
· In Big Soup, the initial structure is an immense sphere of approximately normal nuclear density material.
· Note that the cancellation of gravitons by ungravitons weakens gravity significantly, making it the weakest fundamental force.
· Nothing changes the flow of time except relativistic effects. Time travel is impossible.
· The Laws of Physics have not changed since their creation. They were, are, and will be, everywhere and always, as they are here and now. There was no Cosmic Inflation. There is no Dark Energy. The universe behaves, locally and overall, as the Laws require.
· No physical thing can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum. That limit applies everywhere and always. There are no short-cuts. There are no wormholes.
· The Laws are quantum mechanical – not Newtonian mechanistic.
· Because of quantum effects, Black Holes do not contain singularities.
· Inertial mass is equal to gravitational mass because inertia is self-gravity. All material therefore has inertia.
In summary –
We propose below a qualitative gravity model consistent with these assertions.
We think gravitons –
· Are composite particles, half positive mass and half negative mass – zero net mass – which cause gravity but do not experience gravity themselves. This is analogous to photons, which carry the electromagnetic force, but have zero charge and do not experience electromagnetic forces themselves.
· Have spin ±2, and are emitted in oppositely directed, opposite spin pairs.
· Matter can therefore emit gravitons indefinitely with no change in the emitting matter.
· Likewise for unmatter emitting ungravitons.
· But when matter emits photons, it loses their mass-energy. It may take nanoseconds or gigayears, but this makes change and the end of emission inevitable. Unmatter emitting unphotons has the same fate.
· Gravitons and ungravitons travel in straight lines forever unless they have the same position and direction with opposite spin, causing cancellation. Shielding, focusing, or repelling them is impossible.
· Both halves are fundamental particles. We call the particles “hagons” – half a graviton – symbol H, and unhagons, symbol H. These are spin ±1, so a graviton, G, has mass 0 but spin ±2.
· The speed of gravity – the speed of gravitons in quantum mechanics – is one of the most difficult questions in science. Newton admitted he didn’t know that speed. The usual guess is c – the speed of light in a vacuum.
· We think a more insightful answer is that light in a vacuum travels at c, the speed of gravitons.
· All gravitons have the same components and the same speed, differing only in direction and spin. Heavy things simply emit gravitons at higher rates than emitted by light things. And likewise for all ungravitons, all hagons, and all unhagons. This makes cancellation common.
· There may be – or there may not be – other universes or cosmic levels, but our universe is a stand-alone entity. It does not communicate with anything else. The gravitons, ungravitons, and all the other things ever present in our universe were created here and remain here in some form unless cancelled.
· Gravitons are low-energy combined matter-unmatter particles. They therefore have an extremely long wavelength. One paper estimates it as 1.6 light-years. Regardless of the exact value, we think this suggests that ungravitons, hagons, and unhagons all have very long wavelengths. One consequence is that the exact direction of the initial graviton is not critical – it is “visible” to m2 in any direction.
· Likewise for ungravitons, symbol G.
When a graviton encounters a mass, it induces a laser-like response, and then continues on itself unchanged. The encountered mass produces a hagon traveling in precisely the graviton’s direction, and also an unhagon traveling in precisely the opposite direction, which is to say, back toward the mass which originally emitted the graviton.
Both the hagon and the unhagon have momentum in the graviton’s direction. That is clear for the positive-mass hagon moving in the graviton’s direction, but for the negative-mass unhagon moving in the opposite direction, it requires noting that since p = mv, the unhagon’s negative mass produces momentum opposite the direction of motion.
You would be well-justified, Dear Reader, in taking a few minutes to think about all this. Fortunately, mass is good at physics, so the interaction proceeds with no delay. And we’ll repeat the explanation graphically shortly.
The result is that, to conserve momentum, the encountered mass “recoils” toward the originating mass. Or in more traditional terminology, the distant mass gravitates toward the source mass.
Voila! A mechanism for gravitational attraction! With nary a micron of warped space-time to navigate, and all course change orders delivered by well-qualified graviton messengers.
This is what happens, for example, as the Earth revolves around the sun. Its energy is constant, but its momentum changes constantly, turning a full circle every year. How does that reconcile with local conservation of momentum?
Currently popular models offer two awkward choices. The usual choice is to decide that “local” includes the sun, even at 93,000,000 miles away. In a study of galactic rotation, local must extend to 200,000 light-years.
The other choice is to have the field carry momentum.
Ever encountered a momentum field?
Neither have we.
So in this model, hagons and unhagons carry that momentum. Local means at that exact location and time. Local means local.
Graviton from mass m1 interacts with mass m2 –
Having attracted m2 , the hagons and unhagons from m2 then cancel with other hagons and unhagons because of their overlapping long wavelengths.
A Mutual Gravitational Attraction Example
Before the interactions – m1 and m2 are initially at rest. Both then emit gravitons. (Not shown – the two simultaneously-emitted away-directed gravitons.)
These external-source gravitons cause m1 and m2 to emit hagons and unhagons, causing motion toward each other. The gravitons continue on unchanged. After the interactions –
Cosmology – additional assertions
The universe is an immense expanding sphere numerically dominated by a sea of gravitons and ungravitons being emitted, interacting with matter and unmatter, many cancelling, and the oldest expanding the sphere’s boundary at constant radial speed c.
Within this uniformly expanding sphere, there is a concentric smaller – but still immense – inner sphere containing almost all the baryonic material – material with protons and neutrons. The inner sphere expands at different rates as the universe ages. The inner sphere is the usual subject of cosmology papers.
THE UNIVERSE – NOT To Scale
Cancellation and force strength per particle
Because of their short range, there is no cancellation of nuclear forces in the present universe. Unphotons can cancel photons, but because of wavelength, this is minor except for very low frequency radio waves. But cancellation of gravitons by ungravitons from unmatter regions is common because both have very long wavelengths. Gravity per particle is therefore weak.
Benefits of the model
Origin of the model
The model is based on broadly accepted physics and cosmology, with strong application of symmetry principles. It is not based on any specific prior work.
We struggle with the relativistic concept of warped space-time causing gravity. How does space-time “know” to warp? How does a mass “know” to curve?
About the authors
Both authors are graduates of the Cornell University College of Engineering: Robert in Engineering Physics in 1966, and Scott in Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2001. Robert is Scott’s father.
This work was made possible by the tireless support of Dr. Martha Hartranft (Robert’s wife, Scott’s mother).
We welcome both criticism and comments, especially with specific references to similar work by others. Please use
A Very Brief Glossary
Hagon – a postulated, small positive mass, spin ±1, fundamental particle which we think can pair with an unhagon to form a graviton if the hagon leads, or an ungraviton if the unhagon leads. Hagon name from half a graviton. And Yes, it was said that naming an undetected particle the graviton constituted “Naming the children before the first date”. This paper admittedly names the grandchildren. We defend this as a family tradition long legitimized by common law physics.
Material – matter and/or unmatter; everything regardless of its mass-energy.
Prefix “un” denotes the negative mass-energy counterpart of whatever follows – unphotons and ungravitons through unstars and ungalaxies. These are collectively unmatter.
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