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Physics Topics

17 July 2019 Version    

Robert M. Hartranft              Scott W. Hartranft              

Simsbury CT 06070             Aloha OR 97006

Email     Website


This is a companion paper to our cosmology paper.  We think –

·      Inertia is caused by self-gravity.

·      Gravity is caused by recoil of the distant mass after a passing graviton induces the mass to emit two particles, both with momentum in the same direction as the graviton.


Inertia and self-gravity                                    

Suppose a very large physicist decided that the planet Earth should be treated as a particle – the “Earthon”.  The Earthon would have very high inertia because the Earth has self-gravity.  At the other extreme, a very small physicist, working at Plank scale [10-35 meters] would have the same conclusion about particles like quarks, whose immense size [10-15 meters] at Plank scale would cause them to interact with their own gravitons, just like Earth.

In short, inertia is the result of self-gravity.  Inertial mass is equal to gravitational mass because they derive from the same process – gravity:  self-gravity in one case; external gravity in the other.  


·      Gravitons are emitted in opposite-spin opposite-direction pairs, so the source mass is unchanged.

·      We think gravitons and ungravitons have unlimited range, causing extensive cancellation; thus weak gravity per particle.

·      A passing graviton induces the distant mass to emit a positive mass particle (“hagon”) and an oppositely-directed negative mass particle (“unhagon”), both having momentum in the same direction as the graviton.  Hagon from Half a graviton.

·      To conserve local momentum, the distant mass recoils back toward the source mass.  This is the mechanism of gravity.

·      All this is quantum mechanical, so no singularities.


A Mutual Gravitational Attraction Example

Before the interactions m1 and m2 are initially at rest.  Both then emit gravitons.  (Not shown – the two simultaneously-emitted away-directed gravitons.)

These external-source gravitons induce m1 and m2 to emit hagons and unhagons, causing motion toward one another.  The gravitons continue on unchanged. After the interactions –


E(eV)={\frac  {1.2398}{{\mathrm  {\lambda }}({\mu }m)}}


Theological physics

Discussions of the creation of the universe often consider the Creator.  That can be a slippery slope:  the Creator has been envisioned as anything from an entity with 10,000 faces through divine animals.  The unchanging Laws of Physics and the ever-evolving universe, however, provide evidence undistorted by human doctrine or misunderstanding. Planet Mars continued to rotate and to revolve heedless of whether thought to be the God of War or understood to be a planet like Earth.  The gravitational constant and the speed of light are two more touchstones.

The true Creation Event was the creation of the Laws of Physics:  material creation was simply an allowed event.  John 1:1 in the Christian Bible’s New Testament is an elegant summary: 

In the beginning was the Word,

  and the Word was with God,

  and the Word was God.


Origin of the model

The model is based on broadly accepted physics, with strong application of symmetry principles.  It is not based on any specific prior work.

About the authors 

Both are graduates of the Cornell University College of Engineering:  Robert in Engineering Physics in 1966, and Scott in Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2001.  Robert is Scott’s father. This work was made possible by the tireless support of    Dr. Martha Hartranft (Robert’s wife, Scott’s mother).